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Horumarinta cilmiga iyo hal-abuurnimada farsamada ee mashiinka samaynta bac caag ah

Warshadaha mashiinada baakadaha ee Shiinaha waxay bilaabeen inay soo baxaan qarnigii la soo dhaafay waxayna galeen xilli horumar deg deg ah 1990-yadii. Waqtigan xaadirka ah, nidaam warshadeed oo dhammaystiran ayaa asal ahaan aasaasay. Iyada oo ay sii kordheyso baahida loo qabo bacaha baakadaha caaga ah ee warshadaha cuntada iyo sharaabka, soosaarka bacaha baakadaha caaga ah ayaa si dhakhso leh u horumarsan. Dhowr sano ka dib qaabeynta qaabdhismeedka wax soo saarka, bacaha baakadaha ee Shiinaha ayaa ka beddelay waxyaabaha tiknoolajiyada hoose ay ku jiraan wax soo saarka sare Qalabka tamarta yar, baaxadda weyn ee mishiinka samaynta bacda iyo alaabada teknolojiyada sare ee la soo saaray laguna iibiyo habka saxda ah ayaa daboolaya baahiyaha suuqa. Boorsooyinka baakadaha ayaa si joogto ah loo cusbooneysiiyaa, suuqyada gudaha iyo kuwa caalamiga ahna waa la sii baaraya. Iyadoo loo marayo falanqaynta waxqabadka iyo qaab-dhismeedka mashiinka samaynta bacda, xaaladda hadda jirta iyo horumarka mashiinka samaynta bacda ayaa lagu sifeeyey.

 

Soo bixitaanka baakadaha isku dhafka ah ee balaastigga ah ayaa keenay cunto dareere ah (cabitaano) oo ah qaab dhalooyin, gasacado, dheriyo, iwm. Xilligii kacaanka iyo hal-abuurka ku saabsan adeegsiga baakadaha bacda, waxayna sare u qaadday sameynta bacda wax lagu xiro oo seddex geesood ah mashiinada iyo sameynta bacda wax lagu xiro afar-geesoodka Horumarka tikniyoolajiyadda iyo baaxadda dalabka mashiinka sameynta bacda qaabeysan ee gaarka ah iyo mashiinka sameynta boorsada qaabeeya gaar ahaan si xowli ah ayey ugu soo kordhayaan dhanka baakadaha cabitaanka. Sharaabyada waxaa lagu soo shubay baco balaastig ah, kuwaas oo aan ku habooneyn in la qaado oo si fudud loo isticmaalo, laakiin sidoo kale kaydinta iyo kharashka saadka ayaa ka raqiisan dhalooyinka quraaradaha, PVC (polyvinyl chloride) dhalooyinka caaga ah, PET (polyester) dhalooyinka caaga ah, gasacadaha iyo wixii kale baakadaha Kuwaas waxaa ka mid ah, kaydinta iyo kharashka gaadiidka ee alaabooyinka la dhammeeyey waa 25% oo ka mid ah baakadaha dhalada ku jira, iyo qiimaha keydinta iyo daabulidda baakadaha bacda madhan ay yihiin 10% oo keliya baakadaha dhalada; dib-u-warshadaynta ama ka-faa'iideysiga qashinka sidoo kale waa ka sahlan yahay, ka ammaan iyo deegaan fiican yahay dhalooyinka, gasacadaha, dheryaha, iwm. Marka lagu daro cabitaannada kaarboonka leh sida koolada, baakadaha isku jira ee baakadaha isku jira ee cabitaanka cabitaanka miraha iyo cabitaannada caanaha ayaa muddo dheer caan ka ahaa waddamada horumaray iyo gobollada sida Yurub iyo Mareykanka. Cunnooyinka dareeraha ah ee ku jira bacda balaastigga ah badanaa waxaa ka mid ah maraqa soy, khal, khamri karinta, khamri cad, biir cusub oo badan, waxyaabaha caanaha laga sameeyo, iyo cabitaanno. Waxyaalaha caanaha laga sameeyo badanaa waxay isticmaalaan caaga PE-ka (polyetylen) caag ka mid ah "U" shaashad la duubay oo dabacsan oo la shaabadeeyey (bacda Bailey) ama "I" - warqad la shaabadeeyey oo la shaabadeeyey / aluminium aluminium / baakado isku dhafan oo isku dhafan (Tetra Pak). Tetra Pak waxay leedahay nolol shelf waqti dheer Baakadaha-dhamaadka sare; khamri cad wuxuu leeyahay baakado yar yar oo isticmaalaya PVC (polyvinyl chloride) filim caag ah oo afuufa; biir cusub oo badan ayaa lagu buuxiyaa bacaha la afuufayo ee loo yaqaan 'PE (polyetylen). sidoo kale waxaa jira qadar yar oo qiimo jaban, iskudhaf balaastig ah, oo qaab gaar ah leh, oo leh baakad cabitaan cabitaan Af ah oo baakidh leh.

 

Mashiinka qaadashada bacda balaastigga ah waa in lagu farsameeyo bacaha kala duwan ee filimka balaastigga ah si loo buuxiyo shuruudaha baakadaha kala duwan. Waxaa jira noocyo badan oo mashiinnada samaynta bacda caagga ah, sida mashiinka samaynta bacda funaanada, mashiinka samaynta bacda fidsan, mashiinka samaynta bacda fidsan ee joogtada ah, mashiinka samaynta bacda qashinka isdaba jooga ah, mashiinka sameynta bacda saddax geesta ah, mashiinka sameynta bacda saddax gees , Mashiinka sameynta boorsada Mid-sealing, mashiinka bac-sameynta afarta dhinac ah, mashiinka sameynta boorsada qaab gaar ah, Mashiinka sameynta bacda ee Shiinaha ayaa la soo saaray in ka badan 30 sano, shuruudihuna way sii kordhayaan marba marka ka dambeysa si ay ula kulmaan baahida qalab kala duwan iyo ujeedooyin kala duwan. Maqaalkani wuxuu u qaadanayaa mashiinka samaynta bacda ee boorsooyinka shaabadu hooseyso tusaale ahaan si loo soo koobo qaab dhismeedkeeda wax qabad iyo jihada horumarka.

 

1 Qaab dhismeedka mashiinka samaynta bacda

Mashiinka samaynta bacda ayaa inta badan ka kooban aaladda gudbinta, aaladda gudbinta, aaladda samaynta bacda, aaladda aruurinta bacda, qalabka kala soocida boorsada, iyo nidaamka xakamaynta korontada,

2. Waxqabadka mashiinka samaynta bacda

2.1 Falalka aasaasiga ah ee mashiinka samaynta bacda

(1) Gudbinta Farsamada: dhererka bacda go'an, oo si isdaba joog ah u gudbiya filim bac ah;

(2) Xiritaanka kuleylka heerkulka sare;

(3) U jarjar dherer: jaritaan kulul ama qabow;

(4) Bacda waa la diray;

(5) Tiri;

(6) xidhmooyin buugaag kululayn ah;

(7) Ogaanshaha sawir-qaadaha ee nambarka midabka iyo xakamaynta dhererka boorsada.

2.2 Falalka caawinta ah iyo shuruudaha kale

(1) Isku hagaaji dhererka bacda, xawaaraha sameynta bacda, iyo heerkulka mindi alxanka;

(2) Qaddarka ku habboon ee qalabka hagidda alaab-bixinta filinka bacda ah si loo ilaaliyo xaashida alaabada;

(3) In la tirtiro korontada taagan;

(4) Bacda timo qalajiyaha;

(5) Boorsada aruurinta waxaa lagu soo saarayaa xirmooyin;

(6) Gawaarida la dhigto dherer go'an, fududahay in la xidho filimka;

(7) Dhimashada gacmo goynta, qashinka dib loo warshadeeyo, iwm.

 

3. Xawaaraha mashiinka samaynta bacda

 

Sida ku xusan qawaaniinta JB / T6493-92, xawaaraha ugu badan ee samaynta bacda ee boorsooyinka yaryar iyo kuwa dhexe waa ≥80-100 jeer / min, iyo xawaaraha khadka ugu badan ee wax soo saar V production30-50m / min. Sidaa darteed, wareegga wax soo saar ee shandad kastaa waa uun 0.75 ~ 0.54s (alaab tayo sare leh waxay u baahan yihiin ≥130 jeer / min, taas oo kaliya ah 0.46s). Sababta oo ah tallaabada samaynta bacdu waa mid goos goos ah, waqtiga gudbinta dhabta ah waa illaa 0.5 jeer, taas oo ah, 0.375 ~ 0.273s. Sidaa darteed, waxay muujineysaa in mashiinka sameynta bacda uu u baahan yahay dhakhso, sax ah, muddo dheer soconaya, oo aan saameyn laheyn, haddii kale waxay saameyn doontaa saxnaanta sameynta bacda iyo boorsada Isbeddelo xad dhaaf ah ayaa dhacay muddada dheer, xitaa waxay keeneen qashin .

Sidaa darteed, qaabeynta iyo soo saarista mashiinka samaynta bacda, xulashada qeybaha korantada iyo howlaha bilowgu waxay leeyihiin shuruudo sare. Xaddidan xawaaraha samaynta bacda, xawaaraha samaynta kiishku waa mid ka mid ah tilmaamayaasha ugu muhiimsan ee lagu qiimeeyo waxqabadka mashiinka samaynta bacda.

 

4. Xulista nidaamka naqshadeynta mashiinka samaynta bacda

Mashiinka samaynta bacdu wuxuu jiray oo keliya illaa horraantii 1980-meeyadii, wuxuuna soo saari karaa oo keliya boorsooyin leh hal midab (midab aan lahayn) ama filim guud oo daabacan. Xawaaraha samaynta boorsadu ma badna, waxaana loo qaybin karaa xawaare sare, dhexdhexaad iyo hoose, kan ugu badnaanna waa ilaa 50 jeer / min. Dhammaantood waxay qaataan gudbinta farsamada saafiga ah, iyagoo ku tiirsan farsamada isku xirka qashinka iyo xajinta xajinta si loo ogaado shaqada gudbinta ee isdabajoogga ah ee rullaluistemadka caagagga iyo kuleylka kuleylka iyo jarista filimka. Dhibaatooyinka soo saarista iyo saxsanaanta xajinku ma badna, siibashada badanaa waxay dhacdaa inta lagu jiro shaqada, taas oo saameysa dhererka bacda. Mar haddii xirmidda xajintu ay halis tahay, dayactirku waa adag yahay wax soo saarkuna wuu saameyn doonaa. Sidaa darteed, mashiinka sameynta bacda noocan ah waxaa loo isticmaali karaa oo keliya wax soo saarka bacda caadiga ah, waxtarka wax soo saarkuna wuu hooseeyaa. Hadda waa qalab caadi ah. Badhtamihii 1980-meeyadii, mashiinnada bacda sameeya waxay sameeyeen horumar weyn iyo horumar. Shirkadaha qaar ee Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, iyo Yurub waxay isticmaalaan xajmiga elektromagnetic-ka iyo bareegyada elektromagnetic-ka ah si ay ugu hagaajiyaan labada daraf ee rullaluistemadka gudbiya oo ay ugu xakameeyaan kamaradaha. Marka xajmiga hal dhinac ku hawlan ama kala baxo, jejebiyey dhamaadka kale waa la gooyey ama waa la hawlgalay, oo si kale ayaa loo shaqeeyaa. Kaamirada waxaa lagu dhejiyay usheeda dhexe ee nidaamka gudbinta. Mashiinka ugu weyn waxaa lagu qalabeeyaa mashiinka isku xira isku xirka iyo laba nooc oo farsamooyin marsho oo ciribtiran si loo wado rullaluistemadka gudbinta caag, daboolida kuleylka mindi ee naxaasta ah, iyo falalka jarista mindida birta siday u kala horreeyaan. Xaqiiqdii, marka laga reebo xajinta elektromagnetic iyo jejebiinta, qeybaha kale ee mashiinkan samaynta boorsada asal ahaan waxay lamid yihiin mashiinada samaynta bacda caadiga ah. Dhaqdhaqaaqa isu celinta ee qeybta farsamada awgeed, oo lagu daray isticmaalka baaritaanka sawir qaade si loo helo calaamadda midabka ee filimka wax soo saarka, iyo jawaabta calaamadda ka timaada wareegga korantada, waxay joogsan doontaa waqtiga. Sidaa darteed, ma sahlana xawaaraha waxsoosaarka dhabta ah inuu gaaro 100 jeer / min, taas oo sidoo kale laxiriirta dhamaan koontaroolka korantada wareejinta iyo arimaha kahadlaya, iyadoo loo maleynayo in baaritaanka sawirka koronto uu ku shaqeeyo 20 ° ee istaroogga saxda ah, waqtigiisa shaqo. waa: 20 * 60s / (80 ~ 100) jeer = 0.0417 ~ 0.033 jeer / min meeday meeris shaqo; (80 ~ 100) waa bacda loo maleynayo xawaare sameynta, jeer / daqiiqo. Haddii dhererka kiishka loo habeeyay uu yahay 450mm, ballaca koodhka midabkiisuna yahay 3mm, waqtiga baaritaanka lagu marinayo lambarka midabka waa kaliya: 60s / (80 ~ 100) times = 0.0025 ~ 0.002s / time, that is , 2 ~ 2.5 ms. Kaliya u oggolow waqtiga falcelinta iyo nidaamka korantada farsamada dareeraha sawirka koronto Wadajirka, waqtiga ficilku wuxuu ku saabsan yahay oo keliya 2ms. Haddii ballaca koodhka midabku uu cidhiidhi yahay oo xawaaraha samaynta bacdu ka dhakhso badan tahay, waqtiga jawaabta loo baahan yahay wuu ka gaabin doonaa oo ka sii adkaan doonaa. Sidaa darteed, waxaa aad muhiim u ah in la doorto dareemayaal sawir-qaade tayo sare leh sameynta bacaha qaabka. Sida ku cad khibradeenna, SUNX, RT-410-1 / 5D ama 401-3 baaritaanka sawir-koronto ee lagu sameeyay Japan hadda ma khuseeyaan, SICK, NT6 ama NT8na waa la heli karaa. Sida laga soo xigtay ganacsatada, NT8 waxay leedahay xasaasiyad ugu badan oo ah 0.2ms, taas oo macnaheedu yahay inay gaari karto 5000 jeer ilbidhiqsi, laakiin way ka qaalisan tahay. Xajmiga elektromagnetic iyo bareegyada elektromagnetic, Kobelco oo laga soo saaray Japan wuxuu la kulmi karaa 100 wareeg / min, waana adag tahay in intaas ka badan la gaaro. Si loo xoojiyo awoodda jawaab celinta, taasi waa in la gaaro qiimaha miisaanka sida ugu dhakhsaha badan, korantada ka timaadda wareegga xakamaynta ayaa si dhakhso leh loogu kordhiyaa 4 jeer qiimaha la qiimeeyay, si markaa awoodda ugu sarreysa loo heli karo waqti gaaban, iyo waxay sameyn doontaa saameynteeda adigoon kululeyn ama gubin. Intaas waxaa sii dheer, markay sii weynaato qeexitaanka xajinku, ayaa sii weynaanaya isugeynta la siiyay, laakiin waqtiga jawaabta oo dheereeya, taasi waa, iskeelka xajinta iyo bareega ayaa xaddidaya inta jeer ee saamaynta. Mashiinnada sameynta bacda lakabka badan ama mashiinnada sameynta boorsooyinka waaweyn, xawaaraha lama kordhin karo. Intaas waxaa sii dheer, dhibaatooyin ayaa ka jira naqshadeynta wareegyada korantada, iyo xawaaraha 120 wareeg / daqiiqad ayaa badanaa ah xadka.

 

6.in gunaanad

Mashiinnada samaynta bacda balaastigga ah waxay ka soo ifbaxayaan mid fudud oo adag, laga bilaabo bacaha monochromatic ilaa bacaha midabada leh; laga bilaabo hal-saf, hal-lakab illaa saf-dhowr ah, iyo horumarinta lakabyo badan; laga bilaabo bacaha filimka silsilada leh ilaa bacaha filimka lakabyo badan oo isku dhafan, qaabab aad u badan oo badan. In kasta oo dhaqdhaqaaqa kaaliyeyaasha ah la kordhiyay oo wax badan la hagaajiyay, haddana dhaqdhaqaaqyada aasaasiga ahi wax badan iskama beddelin. Horumarinta heerka mashiinka badanaa waxay ku jirtaa xakamaynta korantada. Waa isbeddel lama huraan ah oo loogu talagalay mashiinka sameynta bacda si loogu beddelo tiknoolajiyadda xakamaynta sawir-dhaqameedka dhaqameed ee teknolojiyadda microelectronic Sidaa darteed, horumarinta mashiinnada cusub ee samaynta bacda waa in lagu daraa korantada, laguna dadaalo kordhinta iyo hagaajinta qalabka korantada ee horumarsan. Soo saarida mashiinada bac-sameynta horumarsan ee aduunka ayaa muujiyey isbedel ah in la mideeyo mishiinada, korontada, gaaska, dareeraha, nalka, birlabta, iyo wax soo saar mid, oo leh wax soo saar sare iyo wax soo saar tamar-badbaadin leh. iyo sirdoonku waxay noqdeen isbeddel. Wax ka beddel xaaladda tiknoolajiyadda hoose sida ugu dhaqsaha badan, baro farsamada casriga ah ee horumarsan, horumarinta iyo soo saaridda qalab ballaaran oo dhammaystiran oo qalab iyo alaabooyin teknolojiyad sare leh oo leh tayo sare iyo adeegsi hooseeya, wax soo saar iyo iibin, iyo horumarinta qalabka baakadaha ku habboon shuruudaha qaranka si loo dardargeliyo beddelka mashiinnada wax lagu rido. Sii horumarin suuqyada gudaha iyo kuwa caalamiga ah. In kasta oo ay weli jiraan dhibaatooyin qaar ka mid ah dhiirrigelinta baakadaha caagga ah ee warshadaha sharaabka, dhiirrigelinta iyo adeegsiga baakadaha bacda ee warshadaha sharaabka ayaa hubaal noqonaya isbeddel aan la joojin karin.

Shirkaddayadu waxay ku takhasustay soo saarista mashiinnada samaynta bacda caagga ah, oo ay ku jiraan mashiinka samaynta bacda jaakada ah, mashiinka samaynta bacda fidsan, mashiinka bacda rogista ee jaakada joogtada ah, mashiinka qaadashada bacda rogista ee joogtada ah, mashiinka sameynta bacda rogista qashinka, mashiinka sameynta bacda shaabadda mashiinka samaynta bacda wax lagu xiro oo saddex-dhinac ah, mashiinka samaynta bacda shaabad lagu xiro, afar-dhinac mashiinka sameynta bacda, mashiinka sameynta bac-qaabeysan ee gaarka ah, haddii aad u baahan tahay mashiin qaadashada bac kasta, fadlan nala soo xiriir

 

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